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Ancestral Scotland Ltd. is a Company Limited by Guarantee (SC244818) first registered in 2003

The Directors are: David John Bruce Durie
David Donald Alexander James Durie

Ancestral Scotland Ltd. is based in Edinburgh, Scotland





DNA test interpretation

Confused by what your DNA results mean? Have them interpreted. Unclear on Y-DNA, autosomal DNA and mitochondrial-DNA? Guidance is here.

Y-DNA - this can link you to genetic relatives as far back as 1,000 years distant.

autosomal DNA - cousin matches 5 to 6 generations back, plus "ethnicity estimates" which are unreliable

mitochondrial DNA - maternal line from a male or a female

Autosomal DNA (at-DNA) - this analyses the totality of your DNA - whether male or female - and can help you research all your "cousin" lines back 5 to 6 generations, about 200 years.
  Some of these matches may have connected "paper" genealogies that can help you break down brick walls and log-jams.

Take an at-DNA test.

There are a number of these from different testing companies - Ancestry, MyHeritage, 23&Me etc. Ancestral Scotland Ltd. recommends and will only interpret test results from Family Tree DNA - in this case the Family Finder test. See

  If you have been tested by a company other than Family Tree DNA, it may be possible to transfer these results into the Family Tree DNA database.

Mistrust ethnicity estimates
Most companies who provide at-DNA testing will produce an estimate of "Ethnicity" or "Origins". These should be taken with a large pinch of skepticism. They are usually based on:
  • samples of modern-day populations in various countries - but the genetic admixture of a country may have changed a lot since your ancestors lived there
  • what test participants claim to be their ancestral origins - which may be wrong, or not what they think.

This does not mean "39% of your ancestry is from Central Europe"
It means “39% of your DNA is similar to the DNA of modern populations in that area”.
And saying "61% from England, Wales and Scotland" is not very helpful, genealogically.
Also, these estimates differ wildly between the various testing companies.

Some people also take these tests:

  Y-DNA - for males only, indicating origins and matches as far as 1,000 years ago.

  mitochondrial DNA - maternal line back from a male or a female who takes a test.

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